E-Cigarette Marketing on Social Networking Sites: Effects on Attitudes, Behavioral Control, Intention to Quit and Self-Efficacy
Journal of Advertising Research, 59(2), 242-254.
Abstract: This study examined exposure to three types of e-cigarette marketing—sponsored advertisements, brand pages, and user-created groups—on social networking sites and their influence on health-related outcomes. Results (N = 1,016) indicated that e-cigarette users who joined user-created groups had significantly more negative attitudes toward quitting and lower behavioral control, intention to quit, and self-efficacy than those who were exposed to sponsored advertisements or who followed brand pages. Exposure to two or more types of marketing had an additive effect on health-related outcomes. Social identification, attention to social comparison, and subjective norms also moderated between exposure to e-cigarette marketing and key dependent measures.