Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of DEI cues in recruiting BIPOC and LGBTQIA+ practitioners by conducting a 2 (identify as marginalized or not) x 2 (high or low DEI cues) online experiment. Guided by social identity theory, intergroup emotions theory, and signaling theory, this study provides experimental evidence of the importance of signaling social identity and DEI efforts, and intergroup emotions in understanding entry-level practitioners’ job pursuit intention for public relations agencies.
Background: The perceived threat of a contagious virus may lead people to be distrustful of immigrants and out-groups. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the salient politicized discourses of blaming Chinese people for spreading the virus have fueled over 2000 reports of anti-Asian racial incidents and hate crimes in the United States.
Objective: The study aims to investigate the relationships between news consumption, trust, intergroup contact, and prejudicial attitudes toward Asians and Asian Americans residing in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compare how traditional news, social media use, and biased news exposure cultivate racial attitudes, and the moderating role of media use and trust on prejudice against Asians is examined.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was completed in May 2020. A total of 430 US adults (mean age 36.75, SD 11.49 years; n=258, 60% male) participated in an online survey through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform. Respondents answered questions related to traditional news exposure, social media use, perceived trust, and their top three news channels for staying informed about the novel coronavirus. In addition, intergroup contact and racial attitudes toward Asians were assessed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to test the associations. Moderation effects were estimated using simple slopes testing with a 95% bootstrap confidence interval approach.
Results: Participants who identified as conservatives (β=.08, P=.02), had a personal infection history (β=.10, P=.004), and interacted with Asian people frequently in their daily lives (β=.46, P<.001) reported more negative attitudes toward Asians after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Relying more on traditional news media (β=.08, P=.04) and higher levels of trust in social media (β=.13, P=.007) were positively associated with prejudice against Asians. In contrast, consuming news from left-leaning outlets (β=–.15, P=.001) and neutral outlets (β=–.13, P=.003) was linked to less prejudicial attitudes toward Asians. Among those who had high trust in social media, exposure had a negative relationship with prejudice. At high levels of trust in digital websites and apps, frequent use was related to less unfavorable attitudes toward Asians.
Conclusions: Experiencing racial prejudice among the Asian population during a challenging pandemic can cause poor psychological outcomes and exacerbate health disparities. The results suggest that conservative ideology, personal infection history, frequency of intergroup contact, traditional news exposure, and trust in social media emerge as positive predictors of prejudice against Asians and Asian Americans, whereas people who get COVID-19 news from left-leaning and balanced outlets show less prejudice. For those who have more trust in social media and digital news, frequent use of these two sources is associated with lower levels of prejudice. Our findings highlight the need to reshape traditional news discourses and use social media and mobile news apps to develop credible messages for combating racial prejudice against Asians.
Glenna Read received the 2019 Annie Lang Dissertation Award from the Information Systems Division of the International Communication Association for her dissertation, “Social identity in advertising: News stories, phenotypic prototypicality, and model identity influence processing and evaluation of advertisements.”
Abstract: Drawing upon the theoretical framework of social identity theory and literature on physical intimacy, consumer neuroscience, and social cognitive and affective neuroscience, responses to images featuring same-gender and other-gender pairs are explored through examination of self-reported attitudes and neural activity associated with attention, memory, and emotion. Under the pretense of pretesting the effectiveness of images to be used in a national advertising campaign, participants viewed still images while neuroelectric brain responses were recorded. Each image featured two women, two men, or a man and a woman presented in positions of physical intimacy. Results indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with attention did not differ overall based on couple composition. However, ERPs associated with working memory and emotion were enhanced when processing images with two men. Preference for these images was reflected in self-reported attitudes.
Abstract: Purpose – Applying social identity theory, the social identity-brand equity model and excitation-transfer theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine effects of game outcome (win/loss) and location (home/away) on sport fans’ brand attitude and purchase intention toward a brand endorsed by their favorite sport team on Facebook, as well as the mediating role of team identification.
Design/methodology/approach – A two (win/loss) by two (home/away) full-factorial between-subjects experiment was conducted during the US National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football season over a four-month period. Participants (n.338), who were Facebook users and fans of a NCAA division I football team, completed an online questionnaire assessing brand attitude and purchase intention toward a team-endorsed brand on Facebook, during weeks after the team: won a home game, lost a home game, won an away game, or lost an away game. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and bootstrapping mediation methods.
Findings – Results revealed a significant main effect for game outcome (win/loss), and a significant interaction effect between game outcome (win/loss) and game location (home/away). Team identification also mediated between game outcome (win/loss) and game location (home/away) to influence brand attitude, but not purchase intention.
Abstract: Used during sport games to guard against incorrect calls by referees, instant replay review has provided sponsoring brands an additional advertising opportunity. Although instant replay video (IRV) encourages sport spectators to stay focused on the screen, no study has examined how viewer perception of and attitude toward an ad or brand tied to IRV are formed or how such formations might vary in different circumstances. Applying Social Identity Theory and the concept of schadenfreude (i.e., the experience of joy when observing another’s misfortune), the current study examined sport fan perceptions of an IRV-sponsoring ad and its sponsoring brand. Results from an experiment using a 2 (rivalry level: high vs. low) × 2 (suspense level: high vs. low) between-subjects design revealed that the positive emotion induced by a negative instant replay outcome for the opposing team (i.e., schadenfreude) led to positive attitude toward the ad (Aad-IRV) and the sponsoring brand (Ab-IRV). Importantly, the results indicate that the effects of schadenfreude on Aad-IRV were greater when the level of rivalry was higher. Participants exposed to the high rivalry game condition showed a stronger relationship between schadenfreude and Aad-IRV than the low rivalry game group. In addition, when the participants felt high suspense during the game, the schadenfreude resulting from a negative outcome of the rivalry team produced a significantly positive effect on Aad-IRV. However, no such schadenfreude effect was observed in the low suspense situations. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.