Influencers’ smiles work regardless of product and message

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how influencers’ visual content affects consumer attitudinal and behavioral responses to influencer advertising. The proposed model includes smile intensity of influencers as the independent variable, warmth and admiration as the mediators, and product category (Study 1) and orientation of advertising messages (self vs social, Study 2) as the moderators. Design/methodology/approach: Two experimental studies (Study 1 and 2) were conducted. A total of 337 online panelists were collected via Qualtrics in Study 1 and responses from 409 online panelists were collected via Qualtrics in Study 2. Findings: The results of two experimental studies showed that smiling influencers increased perceptions of warmth and feelings of admiration, thereby evoking positive consumer attitudes and behavioral intention. The strong positive impact of smiling on responses to influencer advertising was present regardless of product categories (Study 1) and the orientation of advertising messages (Study 2). Originality/value: This study empirically examined the role of visual content on consumers’ attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral responses to influencer advertising by adopting theoretical models in social psychology. This paper also provides strong managerial implications for marketers who seek the most effective strategies for leading consumers to evaluate influencers positively and ultimately, accepting marketing messages favorably. 

Time Heals All Wounds: How Discounting Cues and Multiple Exposures Impact the Effectiveness of Infleuncer Advertising Over Time

Abstract: Through an online experiment with a 2 (no ad disclosure/standardized ad disclosure ’paid partnership with the (brand)’) x 2 (single exposure to the influencer content/multiple exposure to the influencer content) between subjects design (N= 195), the current study examines 1) the effects of multiple exposures to Instagram Influencer content and disclosure presence on persuasion knowledge skepticism and para-social interaction (PSI) and 2) how these psychological processes impact attitudinal and behavioral outcomes 3) over time. Results showed that advertising disclosure on both Instagram posts and stories didn’t directly increase skepticism. Conditional indirect effects showed that only in the case of a single exposure did an ad disclosure, via skepticism, negatively affect brand attitudes and purchase intention. In support of a relative sleeper effect, attitudes and intentions measured at a second data collection point showed the most improvement when initial skepticism was high. Implications for researchers, practitioners, and advertisers are discussed.