Abstract: Using standpoint epistemology and critical mass theories this study examines outcomes of the 2012 ProQuote [ProQuota] initiative in Germany demanding at least 30% women in leadership per newsroom. In-depth interviews with 53 journalists in 21 newsrooms show that ProQuote boosted women’s ascension into leadership by triggering and sustaining a debate about gender in newsroom leadership. This contributed to the normalization and legitimization of women in top positions, somewhat alleviating the stigma of tokenism. With critical mass in a given newsroom, women’s standpoints have entered the discourse on leadership. More representation of women of different backgrounds and overall diversity in leadership are still needed.
Abstract: After working in corporate public relations during the 1930s, Mabel Flanley and Sally Woodward opened an all-woman agency in New York City in 1944. Their specialty was targeting women publics, and they drew on their experiences with home economics and women’s clubs to promote a variety of clients from agribusiness, heavy industry, and government and nonprofit organizations. They carved a path for other women, contributed to the development of professional standards, and influenced other practitioners to target women audiences, and their inclusion initiatives paralleled those of other groups based on diversity of race, ethnicity, and gender.