Abstract: Using a hierarchy of effects framework (Lavidge and Steiner 1961), the present study investigated how brand novelty and publicity about athlete endorsers influence cognition, affect, and conation in response to ads. In a between-subjects design, a total of 422 participants were exposed to an ad for a fictitious or established soft drink brand that featured an athlete endorser. Each ad was paired with a blog post that contained either positive or negative information about the athlete’s off-field behavior. Results indicate that brand novelty, but not publicity, affect cognitive processing. In contrast, publicity, but not brand novelty, influence affective responding and purchase intention. These findings support the hierarchy of effects framework by indicating that cognitive processes are affected by characteristics central to the brand while later processes, such as affect and purchase intention, are influenced by supplemental, tangential information. Furthermore, interactions revealed that new brands are more susceptible to the effects of publicity than established brands – positive information increased positive affect and negative information decreased purchase intention for these brands. Results are discussed in regards to furthering advertising theory and practical implications.
Abstract: Purpose – Applying social identity theory, the social identity-brand equity model and excitation-transfer theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine effects of game outcome (win/loss) and location (home/away) on sport fans’ brand attitude and purchase intention toward a brand endorsed by their favorite sport team on Facebook, as well as the mediating role of team identification.
Design/methodology/approach – A two (win/loss) by two (home/away) full-factorial between-subjects experiment was conducted during the US National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football season over a four-month period. Participants (n.338), who were Facebook users and fans of a NCAA division I football team, completed an online questionnaire assessing brand attitude and purchase intention toward a team-endorsed brand on Facebook, during weeks after the team: won a home game, lost a home game, won an away game, or lost an away game. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and bootstrapping mediation methods.
Findings – Results revealed a significant main effect for game outcome (win/loss), and a significant interaction effect between game outcome (win/loss) and game location (home/away). Team identification also mediated between game outcome (win/loss) and game location (home/away) to influence brand attitude, but not purchase intention.