Abstract: How can green advertising get non-green consumers to think more about the environment? Using Elaboration Likelihood Model and Social Judgement Theory, we construct hypotheses and test them across three experiments. Results provide converging evidence that messages placed on social media with low-information and high-fear (emotional) appeals are most effective at generating purchase intent and digital engagement. Moreover, pollution ideation is the mechanism underlying these effects on social media. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in light of the potential for advertising to be a force for good, particularly on social media where it might encourage non-green consumers to think more about the environment.
Understanding How Consumers Perceive Brand Personality through Sports Sponsorship
Abstract: Sports sponsorship has been considered a key branding strategy for various marketing objectives, but little research investigated how consumers perceived sponsor brands through sports competitions. This study aimed to examine whether team performance and gender difference jointly impacted consumers’ perceived brand personality and how team identification and self-brand connection moderated such impacts on perceived brand personality in the context of sports sponsorship. A two (Team performance: win/loss) by two (Gender: male/female) between-subjects experiment was designed with team identification and self-brand connection as two moderators. Results indicated that team performance, team identification, and self-brand connection yielded individual and joint influences on perceived brand personality. Specifically, team performance exerted significant effects on five dimensions of brand personality, while team identification yielded significant effects on brand responsibility, aggressiveness, and simplicity. Self-brand connection moderated the effect of team performance on brand responsibility and activity. The empirical evidence further illustrated that consumer-level factors came into play to influence perceived brand personality. In support of the affect-transfer hypothesis, team performance that evoked emotions greatly impacted consumers’ perceived brand personality, as they rated a sponsor brand as more positive in terms of brand responsibility, activity, aggressiveness, simplicity, and emotionality.
Effects of Different Sponsorship Disclosure Message Types on Consumers’ Trust and Attitudes toward Sponsored eWOM
Abstract: Addressing the problem of increasing and diversifying sponsored eWOM on social media, this study examined the effects of different types of sponsorship arrangements and disclosure messages, with focus on (1) consumers’ perceived trust in the sponsored content creator and (2) attitudes toward the content creator and the sponsoring brand. An online experiment revealed interesting effects of sponsorship disclosure message types. High-detail sponsorship disclosure messages generated lower perceived benevolence only for search goods, and more positive attitude toward the reviewer only for experience goods. Different types of commercial gains disclosed do not seem to have systematic effects on consumers’ trust in the reviewer or attitudinal responses. However, some interesting patterns are found. The review disclosing the receipt of a free product seems to be perceived as equally acceptable as a review without disclosure and more effective than reviews disclosing general sponsorship, having received a payment, or having received a sales commission.