Abstract: Using a hierarchy of effects framework (Lavidge and Steiner 1961), the present study investigated how brand novelty and publicity about athlete endorsers influence cognition, affect, and conation in response to ads. In a between-subjects design, a total of 422 participants were exposed to an ad for a fictitious or established soft drink brand that featured an athlete endorser. Each ad was paired with a blog post that contained either positive or negative information about the athlete’s off-field behavior. Results indicate that brand novelty, but not publicity, affect cognitive processing. In contrast, publicity, but not brand novelty, influence affective responding and purchase intention. These findings support the hierarchy of effects framework by indicating that cognitive processes are affected by characteristics central to the brand while later processes, such as affect and purchase intention, are influenced by supplemental, tangential information. Furthermore, interactions revealed that new brands are more susceptible to the effects of publicity than established brands – positive information increased positive affect and negative information decreased purchase intention for these brands. Results are discussed in regards to furthering advertising theory and practical implications.
Abstract: Celebrities endorsing veganism may exert social influence on consumers’ attitude toward veganism and behavioral intention to become vegan. A between-subjects online experiment (N = 303) examined the effects of consumers’ eating habits (meat eater versus non-meat eater) and celebrities’ vegan identity (altruistic motivation versus egoistic motivation) on various outcomes of health communication about veganism. Results of statistical analyses revealed a significant multivariate main effect of consumers’ eating habits on health consciousness, intention to spread electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) about veganism, and behavioral intention to become vegan. The results also reveal interaction effects between vegan celebrity endorsers’ motivation and consumers’ eating habits on health consciousness, intention to spread eWoM about veganism, and behavioral intention to become vegan. Additionally, moderating effects of source credibility, subjective norms, and identification with the vegan celebrity endorser were found. This study sheds some light on celebrity endorsements of veganism and effects of message framing on consumers’ veganism-related attitude and behavioral intention.
Abstract: Celebrities endorsing e-cigarette brands on social media may exert a strong influence on e-cigarette uptake. Using a between-subject experiment, this study examines the effects of endorser type (celebrities, non-celebrities and products only) in e-cigarette brand Instagram advertisements on e-cigarette attitudes and smoking intentions. Results showed that celebrity endorsers significantly increased positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and smoking intentions, compared to non-celebrities or products only. Celebrity endorsers also rated significantly higher on trustworthiness, expertise, goodwill and attractiveness, compared to non-celebrities. Additionally, identification, social comparison, health consciousness and social networking site use moderated between endorser type and key dependent measures. Implications for e-cigarette marketing regulation are discussed.