Abstract: In a polarizing media environment increasingly fraught with misinformation, disinformation, contradicting information, and rumor, it is tougher than ever for brands and agencies to correct the record or make their voices heard. While misinformation has been examined more extensively from the perspective of journalism, information technology, and politics (Anderson & Rainie, 2017), there is a lack of understanding regarding how misinformation disseminated via social media affects brand image and organizational reputation and legitimacy, potentially leading to crisis. These social media crises represent the “bleeding edge” of crisis communication research for organizations (Coombs, 2014, p. 1). While research in this arena has been emerging, it has not been sufficient or fully evidence-based. As the first phase of a larger research project to examine how organizations can effectively address and correct misinformation online and via social media, this study aims to fill this gap in research by investigating cases of data breach misinformation and social media crises across multiple vulnerable industries, including healthcare, technology, and retail.