Comedic violence in advertising: Cultural third-person effects among U.S., Korean, and Croatian consumers

Abstract: Humor is a popular appeal used in global advertising and with the growing use of comedic violence ads in the U.S., it is a worthwhile endeavor to see whether comedic violence ads by U.S. brands could travel globally. This research conducted three studies in three countries, chosen for their distinctively different cultural tendencies and market potential: the U.S., Korea, and Croatia. Across the studies it was found that (1) individuals in the U.S. used aggressive humor in daily life more than Koreans or Croatians, (2) U.S. had higher perceived humor and ad attitudes toward the comedic violence ad than in Korea or Croatia, and (3) U.S. individuals found the comedic violence ad funnier for themselves than for others in different cultures while Koreans thought the ad was less funny for themselves than for others in different cultures. Croatians did not have response differences between self vs. others. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Putting Things into Context: A Meta-Analysis of Media Context Effects on Attitudinal Outcomes

Abstract: The role of media context in advertising has been the subject of interest for marketers and media practitioners over the past fifty years. However, there remains a lack of clarity on the relationship between media context and advertising outcomes. To structure previous literature and facilitate knowledge development, this study meta-analytically examines the relationship between media context and attitudinal outcome measures (i.e., consumers’ attitudes toward the ad/brand/product and purchase intentions). A total of 31 years of research findings, 96 studies and 597 effect sizes involving 139,233 research participants were synthesized. The key findings suggest that different media context facets leverage consumers’ attitudes and PI differently. Felt involvement with media, transportation (consumers’ experience of becoming non-volitional and absorbed in the media contexts), and perceived trust/credibility of media vehicles exhibited a stronger influence on attitudes/PI. Media-ad congruence, the most commonly examined media context among objective contexts, resulted in a very weak influence on attitudes/PI. The context effect also differed by advertising-related characteristics and extraneous methodological factors. Accordingly, there is a need for both academia and practice to revisit the media context construct with a fresh eye.

Book: The Changing Education for Journalism and the Communication Occupations: The Impact of Labor Markets

Lee Becker & Tudor Vlad, (2020), Dinamica educației pentru profesiile din jurnalism și comunicare. Impactul pieței forței de muncă, Cluj-Napoca, Romania: Scoala Ardeleana Publishing House. It is the version in Romanian of the book The Changing Education for Journalism and the Communication Occupations: The Impact of Labor Markets (2018), revised, adapted, and with notes for readers in East and Central Europe.

Abstract: This book provides a unique perspective on journalism and communication education, drawing on extensive, detailed data across time to examine the evolution of education for journalism and related communication occupations such as public relations and advertising. It demonstrates how journalism and communication education adapted to forces within the university as well as forces from outside the university. Particular attention is given to the impact of the labor markets to which journalism and communication education is linked. Part history, part sociological analysis, this book will change the reader’s understanding of education for journalism, public relations, advertising and the related occupations. Though most of the data come from the United States, the book offers a broad perspective of international journalism and mass communication education and offers insights about what the future of education in these fields holds.

The More You Win, The Less You Believe? An Examination of the Moderating Effect of Team Performance on Attitude Toward Message of Sport Fan’s Superstitions

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to revisit the Bud Light “Superstitions” campaign, for which we examined how superstitious fans’ inferences of manipulative intention might influence their responses to the sponsor’s persuasion attempt in the sponsorship-linked advertising (SLA). Given that team identification was robustly found to be a powerful predictor of a variety of fan’s superstitious behaviors (Wann et al., 2013; Wann & Goeke, 2018), the current study tested the moderating effect of perceived team performance on subsequent inference of manipulative intention and attitudes toward the SLA featuring superstitions. Data were collected by using a student sample (N=145). Multiple regression analyses were conducted on the model depicting the hierarchical relationships among sport fan superstitions, team identification, team performance, inference of manipulative intention, and advertisement attitudes (i.e., preference and credibility of advertisement). The findings revealed that sport fan’s superstition level was highly correlated with the level of team identification although the correlation was not moderated by perceived team performance. For those fans who had higher superstition level, they had a higher inference of manipulation intention after watching the SLA featuring superstitions although the SLA was more preferable and credible for them. Discussions are centered on theoretical and practical implications of channeling fan’s superstitions toward marketing effectiveness.

The effects of commercial breaks on ad and program memory: A neurophysiological study

ABSTRACT: Though the commercial break (CB) is a common advertising strategy, the neural processing that CBs evoke and effective CB positioning remain unclear. We investigated the effects of CB interruption, associated brain activity, ad pod position, and program genre on ad memory. Changes in the relationship between brain activity and ad memory reveal that CBs helped viewers remember ads despite low neural processing but because of negative emotion experienced due to interruption. Findings indicate that viewers remembered ads in the first CB better than those in the second, that CBs were more effective during dramas than during variety shows, while CB interruption attenuated program content memory. These findings shed light on how CBs influence ad and program content memory and have practical implications for advertising placement strategies on television and streaming video contents.

Time Heals All Wounds: How Discounting Cues and Multiple Exposures Impact the Effectiveness of Infleuncer Advertising Over Time

Abstract: Through an online experiment with a 2 (no ad disclosure/standardized ad disclosure ’paid partnership with the (brand)’) x 2 (single exposure to the influencer content/multiple exposure to the influencer content) between subjects design (N= 195), the current study examines 1) the effects of multiple exposures to Instagram Influencer content and disclosure presence on persuasion knowledge skepticism and para-social interaction (PSI) and 2) how these psychological processes impact attitudinal and behavioral outcomes 3) over time. Results showed that advertising disclosure on both Instagram posts and stories didn’t directly increase skepticism. Conditional indirect effects showed that only in the case of a single exposure did an ad disclosure, via skepticism, negatively affect brand attitudes and purchase intention. In support of a relative sleeper effect, attitudes and intentions measured at a second data collection point showed the most improvement when initial skepticism was high. Implications for researchers, practitioners, and advertisers are discussed.

Effects of Brand Name versus Empowerment Advertising Campaign Hashtags in Branded Instagram Posts of Luxury versus Mass-market Brands

Abstract: Through 2 studies, this research examined consumer responses to empowerment hashtags in social media-based fashion advertising. The findings of Study 1 indicated that consumers showed more favorable attitudes towards empowerment campaign hashtags than brand name hashtags, and that perceived information value of hashtags meditated the relationship between hashtag type and attitudes toward the hashtags. Furthermore, consumer responses to the two hashtag types varied depending on the “sophistication” dimension of brand personality. Study 2 extended Study 1 by further examining the effects of empowerment hashtags on consumers’ attitudes toward ads and consumer-brand identification. Participants perceived greater information value from empowerment hashtags, showed more favorable attitudes toward the ads with empowerment hashtags, and identified more strongly with advertised brands. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

An Interdisciplinary Examination of the Material Effects of Deceptive Sport Beverage Advertisements

Abstract: Sport companies frequently make product claims in advertisements to influence consumer purchase decisions. Sport beverages, in particular, often tout health benefits and performance claims. Unfortunately, some sport beverage claims may be false or misleading, persuading consumers to erroneously purchase products due to incorrect information. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) prohibits any deceptive advertising resulting in a material effect on the consumer. Consumer behaviorists, however, rarely consider the FTC’s guidelines in measuring consumer deception. Therefore, drawing upon consumer behavior theory and the FTC’s guidelines, this paper examines the material effects of deceptive sport beverage advertisements. The authors identify and define three types of materiality: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Employing a within-subjects experimental design, two studies were conducted: print and Facebook. The results reveal both types of deceptive advertisements had positive and statistically significant effects on all three types of materiality. These findings substantiate the determination of a violation by the National Advertising Division (NAD) and support further investigation of deceptive sport beverage advertising and marketing practices by the FTC.

Guilt by association: How chumbox advertising affects news readers’ perceptions

Abstract: As content referral widgets and other forms of native advertising continue to be lucrative means of subsidizing journalism, critics and industry observers have derided these “chumboxes” as damaging to the user experience and the journalism they’re adjacent to. This study theorizes mechanisms behind this proposition and tests it in two controlled experiments. Results suggest that effects of chumbox ads on perceptions of message and source credibility depend on article context, such that the presence of chumboxes damages message and source credibility in circumstances where readers are more motivated to read the article.