Getting a little too personal? Positive and negative effects of personalized advertising on online multitaskers

Abstract: Given the increasing number of personalized ads and the prevalence of media multitasking, understanding the impact of online privacy concern on ad outcomes is important. However, the interaction effects between media multitasking and ad personalization on ad evaluation remain unexplored, including whether multitasking might lower privacy concern (i.e., cognitive performance) and improve ad evaluation and persuasion (i.e., attitudinal performance). Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the interplay between (a) level of ad personalization and (b) media multitasking and the effects of both on level of privacy concern and evaluation of the ad. We used a between-subjects experiment (N = 219) to test the effects of non-personalized and personalized advertising on online news readers, half of whom also attended to a podcast or a movie trailer while reading. Results show that the negative effect of personalized advertising on attitude toward the ad (Aad) and attitude toward the brand (Ab) emerged. Participants exposed to the more personalized ad showed less favorable Aad and Ab than those exposed to the less personalized ad. Moreover, privacy concern mediated the negative impact of the personalized ad message on ad evaluation. The results also revealed that the moderated mediation effect of multitasking on personalized advertising effectiveness through privacy concern was not significant. However, media tasking type significantly moderated the direct relationships between ad personalization and ad effectiveness (i.e., Aad and Ab). Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Sexualized Images of Female Influencers in Instagram Advertising: Do They Work?

Jooyoung Uhm (Grady MA alum) and Jooyoung Kim. “Sexualized Images of Female Influencers in Instagram Advertising: Do They Work?” Presented at the American Academy of Advertising (AAA) Annual Conference, St. Petersburg, FL, March 24 – 27, 2022.

Abstract: The primary purpose of the current study is to examine the effects of sexualized images of influencers on the effectiveness of advertising regarding both cognitive and motivational processing. Overall, the results indicate that the sexualized images of influencers negatively affect the evaluation of the influencer, which in turn affects attitude towards the ad and behavioral intention negatively. Although there was little influence found on motivational activation, this study adds understanding of how the sexualized images of influencers affects the overall ad effectiveness and performance.

Virtual Reality Experience in Tourism Advertising: Roles of Immersion and Advertising Engagement

Jihoon Kim (Grady PhD alum), Sun Joo (Grace) Ahn, and Jooyoung Kim. “Virtual Reality Experience in Tourism Advertising: Roles of Immersion and Advertising Engagement.” Presented at the American Academy of Advertising (AAA) Annual Conference, St. Petersburg, FL, March 24 – 27, 2022

Abstract: Building favorable destination image and evoking positive feelings toward tourism ads are essential to the success of destination marketing in the competitive tourism business environment. The current study investigated the potential of virtual reality (VR) in providing new and innovative avenues for promoting destination image in tourism and testing its impact on advertising engagement that follows the VR experience. Despite the increased use of VR in destination advertising and its advantages over traditional media platforms, its effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms driving advertising engagement remain underexplored. Guided by the proposed conceptual model of immersive virtual tours, the current study investigated the roles of self-location and ad engagement along with several key variables (i.e., enjoyment, destination image change, attitude toward the ad and the brand) using a lab experiment (N = 78). Results indicate that experiencing a VR tour of a destination had a positive impact on ad engagement and that enjoyment of the immersive experience mediated the relationship between self-location and engagement with an ad shown after the virtual experience. The level of immersion moderated the effect of VR experience on ad engagement. Theoretical and managerial implications of VR tourism are discussed

Advertising in the Metaverse

Jooyoung Kim (March 24). Advertising in the Metaverse. Panelist at the half-day American of Academy of Advertising pre-conference, which was designed and led by Sun Joo (Grace) Ahn.

Native advertising relevance effects and the moderating role of attitudes toward social networking sites

Hye Jin Yoon, Yan Huang, and Mark Yi-Cheon Yim (2022), “Native advertising relevance effects and the moderating role of attitudes toward social networking sites,” Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing

Abstract: Native advertising on social media continues to be a popular ad placement for marketers. With native ad-content relevance in need of further exploration regarding individual differences and social media public sentiment waning, this study set out to test the effects of ad-content relevance of native ads varying by users’ pre-existing social networking site (SNS) attitude. Two experiments were conducted with native ads relevant and irrelevant to the surrounding media content with SNS attitude as a measured moderator and perceived ad importance as the mediator. Across Instagram and Twitter, SNS attitude moderated the effect of ad relevance on ad responses. Users that had lower SNS attitudes had significantly higher ad ratings that were relevant (vs. irrelevant) to the media content, while those that had higher SNS attitudes did not show differences. The lower SNS attitude individuals showed a greater appreciation for the relevant ads through the mediating effect of perceived importance. Marketers need to look beyond traditional ad attitude models and craft ad content strategies that consider target audiences’ SNS preferences. Layering targeting tactics on Instagram and Twitter such as “interests” and “life events” with demographic targeting could help increase the chances of ad-content relevance. SNSs should advance their ad placement tools and utilize image, speech, and text recognition algorithms to help achieve ad-content relevance for greater ad effectiveness. This study adds to the literature by identifying SNS attitude as a qualifier of ad-content relevance effect for SNS native ads and uncovering perceived ad importance as the underlying psychological mechanism. 

The influence of socialization agents on consumer responses to over-the-counter medicine advertising (OTCA)

Abstract: This study examined the mechanisms through which attitudes toward OTCA in general and OTCA prompted behaviors are formed based on a consumer socialization framework. An online survey was conducted using the Qualtrics online panel. Completed questionnaires were received from 539 individuals who had taken prescription medicine in the last six months. Of those, 304 were from U.S. adults who had taken an OTC medicine and had seen an advertisement for OTC medicines in the past six months were analyzed to test the proposed model. The results showed that consumers’ use of mass media and professional interpersonal channels directly influenced OTCA attitudes and prompted behaviors. On the other hand, consumers’ use of non-professional interpersonal channels indirectly influenced OTCA outcomes through their use of mass media and professional interpersonal channels. Younger respondents were more likely to obtain OTC medicine information from non-professional interpersonal and mass media sources whereas older respondents were more likely to obtain OTC medicine information from physicians and pharmacists. The findings of this study provide implications for pharmaceutical marketers, health professionals, and consumers of OTC medicines.  

Decoding Demarketing Advertising: The Role of Company Mission Commitment and Credibility on Demarketing Efforts

Abstract: Consumers are increasingly in support of sustainable marketing and demarketing has received attention as a viable strategy in response to this growing sentiment. As only a few studies focused on testing demarketing in the context of mindful or anti-consumption, this study tested the effects of practical elements such as a company’s mission commitment level to the cause and corporate social responsibility (CSR) credibility between traditional green advertising and demarketing advertising. Consumer ratings for the green advertising exceeded that of demarketing advertising only under certain conditions (e.g., low impact mission commitment given low CSR credibility, high impact mission commitment given high CSR credibility). There were no conditions where demarketing outperformed the green ad. A generally higher processing disfluency towards demarketing might have been a contributing factor. Further, perceived company integrity was a significant mediator that drove consumer ratings. These results provide an in-depth discussion regarding the viability of demarketing campaigns.

Virtual Reality Experience in Tourism Advertising: Roles of Immersion and Advertising Engagement

Abstract: Building favorable destination image and evoking positive feelings toward tourism ads are essential to the success of destination marketing in the competitive tourism business environment. The current study investigated the potential of virtual reality (VR) in providing new and innovative avenues for promoting destination image in tourism and testing its impact on advertising engagement that follows the VR experience. Despite the increased use of VR in destination advertising and its advantages over traditional media platforms, its effectiveness and the underlying mechanisms driving advertising engagement remain underexplored. Guided by the proposed conceptual model of immersive virtual tours, the current study investigated the roles of self-location and ad engagement along with several key variables (i.e., enjoyment, destination image change, attitude toward the ad and the brand) using a lab experiment (N = 78). Results indicate that experiencing a VR tour of a destination had a positive impact on ad engagement and that enjoyment of the immersive experience mediated the relationship between self-location and engagement with an ad shown after the virtual experience. The level of immersion moderated the effect of VR experience on ad engagement. Theoretical and managerial implications of VR tourism are discussed.

Comedic violence in advertising: Cultural third-person effects among U.S., Korean, and Croatian consumers

Abstract: Humor is a popular appeal used in global advertising and with the growing use of comedic violence ads in the U.S., it is a worthwhile endeavor to see whether comedic violence ads by U.S. brands could travel globally. This research conducted three studies in three countries, chosen for their distinctively different cultural tendencies and market potential: the U.S., Korea, and Croatia. Across the studies it was found that (1) individuals in the U.S. used aggressive humor in daily life more than Koreans or Croatians, (2) U.S. had higher perceived humor and ad attitudes toward the comedic violence ad than in Korea or Croatia, and (3) U.S. individuals found the comedic violence ad funnier for themselves than for others in different cultures while Koreans thought the ad was less funny for themselves than for others in different cultures. Croatians did not have response differences between self vs. others. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.